Investment Casting FAQ




Investment casting is a production method that has been used for thousands of years. Today, investment casting is used to manufacture precision parts while reducing material waste and secondary operations.

Compared to other types of casting, investment casting can provide better part finishes, offer increased design flexibility and deliver better part-to-part consistency.

Review our FAQ below to learn more.

Click a question to show the answer.

What is investment casting?
Investment casting is a refined manufacturing process consisting of several steps:
  1. Using polished aluminum dies, create injected wax replicas of the part, called “patterns.”
  2. Affix the patterns to wax runner bars to create what is known as a “tree.”
  3. Dip the tree repeatedly into a slurry to build up a ceramic shell.
  4. Remove the wax using steam and pressure.
  5. Pour molten metal into the heated ceramic shell.
  6. After cooling, remove the shell.
Why is it called “investment” casting?
One historical definition of “invest” is “to surround,” so the name “investment casting” refers to the ceramic shell used to encase the wax replicas of the part to be cast.
Why is investment casting also called “lost wax casting”?
Investment casting is also known as “lost wax casting” because the wax around which the ceramic shell is formed is melted out, or lost, before the actual part is cast.
What is investment casting used for?
Investment casting is used to make near-net shape parts with superior finishes for applications in a wide range of industries, including oil & gas, medical & dental equipment, aerospace & aviation and military.
What tooling and pattern equipment is necessary?
The main tooling required is the split-cavity aluminum die (with the shape of the final casting) used to produce the wax mold patterns. Depending on the complexity of the casting, various combinations of Aluminum, ceramic or soluble cores may be employed to allow for the desired configuration. Most tooling for investment casting costs between $1,000-$10,000. Rapid prototypes (RP), including stereo lithography (SLA) models, also can be used. The RP models can be created in hours and take on the exact shape of a part. The RP parts then can be assembled together and coated in ceramic slurry and burned out, allowing for a hollow cavity to obtain a prototype investment cast component. If the casting is larger than the build envelope, multiple RP subcomponent parts can be made, assembled into one part, and cast to achieve the final prototype component. Using RP parts is not ideal for high production but can help a design team examine a part for accuracy and form, fit and function before submitting a tool order. RP parts also allow a designer to experiment with multiple part configurations or alternative alloys without a large outlay of tooling cost.
What are the typical lead times for investment casting?
Like most casting processes, lead times with investment casting vary due to part complexity and casting plant capacity. Generally, 4-6 weeks is typical for tooling and sample castings, and 6-8 weeks for production. Once a wax pattern is created, a component can be produced in seven days; much of this time is spent with the coating and drying of the ceramic slurry. By using RP processes, engineered cast metal components can be delivered only days after accepting a final CAD model.
What are the size limits of investment cast components?
Investment castings can be produced in all alloys from a fraction of an ounce, for dental braces, to more than 1,000 lbs. (453.6 kg) for complex aircraft engine parts. Smaller components can be cast at hundreds per tree, while heavier castings often are produced with an individual tree. The weight limit of an investment casting depends on the mold handling equipment at the casting plant. Most U.S. investment casting facilities cast parts up to 20 lbs. (9.07 kg). However, many domestic facilities are increasing their capability to pour larger parts, and components in the 20-120-lb. (9.07-54.43-kg) range are becoming common. The size of the tree also must be taken into consideration. A ratio often used in designing for investment casting is 3:1—for every 1 lb. (0.45 kg) of casting, there should be 3 lbs. (1.36 kg) to the tree, depending on the necessary yield and the size of the component. The tree always should be significantly larger than the component, and the ratio ensures that during the casting and solidification processes, the gas and shrink will end up in the tree, not the casting.
What as-cast dimensional tolerances can be achieved?
Typically, a linear tolerance of ±0.005 in/in (0.127 mm/in.) is standard for investment castings. For example, if a 1-ft. component were cast, it likely would have a tolerance of ±0.06 in. (1.52 mm). This would vary depending on the size and complexity of the part. Post-casting procedures, such as straightening or coining, often allow for tighter tolerances to be maintained on several specific dimensions. By working with our engineering staff, an investment casting drawing can be produced for a part that substantially reduces or completely eliminates the previous machining requirements to produce an acceptable component.
What kind of surface finishes does investment casting produce?
Because the ceramic shell is assembled around smooth patterns produced by injecting wax into a polished aluminum die, the final casting finish is excellent. A 125 rms micro finish is standard for investment casting, and even finer finishes (63 or 32 rms) are possible with post-cast secondary finishing operations. Like other investment casting facilities, Avalon has its own standards for surface blemishes. Our staff will discuss these capabilities with design engineers/customers before the tooling order is released. Certain standards depend on a component’s end-use and final cosmetic features.
Are investment castings expensive?
Due to the costs and labor with the molds, investment castings generally have higher costs than forged parts or sand and permanent mold casting methods. However, they make up for the higher cost through the reduction of machining achieved through as-cast near-net-shape tolerances. One example of this is innovations in automotive rocker arms, which can be cast with virtually no machining necessary. Many parts that require milling, turning, drilling and grinding to finish can be investment cast with only 0.020-0.030 inch finish stock. Further, investment castings require minimal draft angles to remove the patterns from the tooling (typically ½°); and no draft is necessary to remove the metal castings from the investment shell. This can allow castings with 90-degree angles to be designed with no additional machining to obtain those angles. Read more about how investment casting can lower the overall cost of ownership.
How many parts are needed to make investment casting practical?
This number depends on how many casting runs will occur. If there is a run size of 50 that will be produced 10 times per year, the tooling costs for the wax patterns likely will be well paid off after the 10th production run. Further, no additional repairs need to be made to the tool because the wax used in investment casting does little to cause wear defects to the tool material. Generally, machine toolmakers say that the logical part count to pay off a tool is at least 25 castings. Once a tool is purchased, it likely needs only one or two pieces at a time for replacements. A number of investment casting facilities, mainly in the automotive industry, produce more than 100,000 parts per month. The high part numbers are dependent on how much a metal casting facility is willing to expand its capacity to produce such high volumes. For standard orders, the bulk of investment castings produced fall in the range of 100-10,000 pieces per year.
Are there porosity and/or shrinkage defects with investment castings?
This depends on how well a metal casting facility degasses a melt and how fast the parts solidify. As mentioned earlier, a properly built tree will allow porosities to be trapped in the tree, not the casting, and a high-heat ceramic shell allows for better cooling. Also, vacuum-investment cast components rid the molten metal of gassing defects as air is eliminated. Investment castings are used for many critical applications that require x-ray and must meet definite soundness criteria. The integrity of an investment casting can be far superior to parts produced by other methods.
What alloys can be poured in investment casting?
Generally, most ferrous and nonferrous materials can be investment cast. For ferrous materials, carbon, tool and alloy steel along with the 300, 400, 15-5PH, and 17-4PH stainless steel alloys are most commonly poured. Also, the rise in ductile iron casting demand has increased the use of the metal for investment casting. For nonferrous applications, most Aluminum, Magnesium, Copper-base and other nonferrous materials can be cast, with Aluminum as one of the most common. Additionally, certain investment casting applications require the use of specialized “exotic” alloys used primarily in harsh environments. These alloys, such as Titanium and Vanadium, meet the additional demands that might not be achieved with standard Aluminum alloys. For example, Titanium alloys often are used to produce turbine blades and vanes for aerospace engines. Cobalt- and Nickel-base alloys (with a variety of secondary elements added to achieve specific strength-, corrosion- and temperature-resistant properties) are additional types of exotics. Some examples are Hastelloys, which can endure steam and acids found at chemical manufacturing plants, and Monels, which have good weldability.
What are other types of casting?
Casting, the process in which molten metal is poured into a mold to make a part or component, can be performed using a variety of methods, including:
• High pressure die casting, which uses a pressurized process to inject the molten metal into the mold
Sand casting, which uses relatively inexpensive molds
Permanent mold casting, which is also known as gravity die casting
What is the difference between investment casting and sand casting?
Among other differences, investment casting offers tighter dimensional tolerances and better surface finishes than sand casting. Read more about the differences between investment casting, sand casting and other manufacturing methods.


Avalon Precision Metalsmiths is now part of Sigma Engineered Solutions. Learn more about Sigma's full range of casting capabilities:
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